A ReRAM-Based Nonvolatile Flip-Flop With Self-Write-Termination Scheme for Frequent-OFF Fast-Wake-Up Nonvolatile Processors

Albert Lee, Chieh Pu Lo, Chien Chen Lin, Wei Hao Chen, Kuo Hsiang Hsu, Zhibo Wang, Fang Su, Zhe Yuan, Qi Wei, Ya Chin King, Chrong Jung Lin, Hochul Lee, Pedram Khalili Amiri, Kang Lung Wang, Yu Wang, Huazhong Yang, Yongpan Liu, Meng Fan Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nonvolatile flip-flops (nvFFs) enable frequent-off processors to achieve fast power-off and wake-up time while maintaining critical local computing states through parallel data movement between volatile FFs and local nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices. However, current nvFFs face challenges in large store energy ( \text{E}-{\mathrm {S}} ) and long voltage stress time on the device ( \text{T}-{\mathrm {STRESS}} ), due to wide distribution in the write time of NVM device as well as unnecessary writes. Moreover, heavy parasitic load on the power rail cause long wake-up time for restoring data from NVM to FFs. This paper proposes the resistive RAM (ReRAM)-based nvFF with self-write termination (SWT) and reduced loading on power rail to: 1) reduce 93+% waste of \text{E}-{\mathrm {S}} from fast switching or matched cells; 2) suppress endurance and reliability degradation resulted from overprogramming and long \text{T}-{\mathrm {STRESS}} ; and 3) achieve reliable and 26+ times faster restore operation compared with previous nvFFs. We have fabricated a nonvolatile processor and a test chip with SWT-nvFFs using logic-process ReRAM in a 65-nm CMOS process. Measured results show sub-2-ns termination response time and sub-20-ns chip-level restore time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7961232
Pages (from-to)2194-2207
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume52
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2017

Keywords

  • Flip-flop (FF)
  • nonvolatile logic
  • nonvolatile processor (nv-Processor)
  • resistive RAM (ReRAM)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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