A review of genetic, biological, pharmacological, and clinical factors that affect carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels

Michael F. Fleming*, Raymond F. Anton, Claudia D. Spies

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Background: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is an alcohol biomarker recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This test is increasingly being used to detect and monitor alcohol use in a variety of health care, legal, and industrial settings. The goal of this study is to review the genetic, biological, pharmacological, and clinical factors that may affect CDT levels. Methods: A review of the literature identified 95 research articles that met the authors' criteria and reported potential interactions of a variety of factors on percent and total CDT levels. The review established 12 categories of variables that may affect CDT levels. These categories include (1) alcohol use, (2) genetic factors, (3) race, (4) gender, (5) age, (6) liver disease, (7) iron levels, (8) tobacco use, (9) medication such as estrogen and anticonvulsants, (10) metabolic factors such as body mass index and total body water, (11) chronic medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, and (12) surgical patients. Results: There is evidence that %CDT levels are affected by alcohol use, end-stage liver disease, and genetic variants. In addition to these three factors, total CDT levels (CDTect) are also affected by factors that raise transferrin levels such as iron deficiency, chronic illnesses, and menopausal status. Other potential factors such as tobacco and age appear to be confounded by alcohol use. The roles of female gender, low body mass index, chronic inflammatory diseases, and medication on CDT levels require further study. False negatives are associated with female gender, episodic lower level alcohol use, and acute trauma with blood loss. Conclusions: This review suggests that a number of factors are associated with false-positive CDTect and %CDT levels. CDT offers great promise to assist physicians in the care of patients to detect and monitor heavy alcohol use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1347-1355
Number of pages9
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Alcohol biomarker
  • CDT
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'A review of genetic, biological, pharmacological, and clinical factors that affect carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this