A review of the incidence, outcome, and management of venous stent migration

Mohamed Hosny Sayed, Murtaza Salem, Kush R. Desai, Gerard J. O'Sullivan, Stephen A. Black*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: Percutaneous endovenous stenting has emerged during the past decade as the primary method of treating symptomatic venous outflow obstruction. A recognized complication of venous stenting is stent migration. The aim of the present systematic review was to identify the number of cases of stent migration in reported studies to recognize the risk factors that might be associated with this complication and the outcomes following migration. Methods: A review was conducted in accordance with the MOOSE (meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology) and PRIMSA (preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis) guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed databases. Key references were searched using specified keywords. All relevant data for the primary procedure and subsequent presentation with stent migration were retrieved. The data were assessed as too low in quality to allow for statistical analysis. Results: Between 1994 and 2020, 31 studies were identified, including 29 case reports and 2 case series, providing data for 54 events of venous stent migration with some data provided regarding the stent used for 47 of the events. The mean age of the 52 patients with stent migration was 50 years (range, 19-88 years) and 30 were men (57.6%). The stents for most of the reported cases were ≤60 mm in length (38 of 46; 82.6%). Only three of the reports were of stents >14 mm in diameter (3 of 47; 3.6%). None of the studies had reported migration of stents >100 mm long. In 85% of the migrated stent events, retrieval was attempted, with 65.2% via an endovascular approach. The immediate outcome was satisfactory for 100% of the reported attempts, whether by an endovascular or open surgical approach. Conclusions: The findings from our literature review suggest that the risk of migration is rare but might be underreported. Most of reported cases had occurred with shorter and smaller diameter stents. The paucity of reported data and the short-term follow-up provided suggest that more formal data collection would provide a truer reflection of the incidence. However, clear strategies to avoid migration should be followed to prevent this complication from occurring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)482-490
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Complications
  • Migration
  • Retrieval
  • Right ventricle
  • Stent
  • Venous

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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