A simplified multivariant SMA model based on invariant plane nature of martensitic transformation

Xiujie Gao*, L Catherine Brinson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


The Multivariant model describing shape memory alloy (SMA) constitutive behavior is further developed in this paper for improved prediction of thermomechanical response. In the original formulation of the Multivariant model, an interaction energy, representative of the incompatibility of an inclusion to the matrix, was calculated by a micromechanics model in which every variant group (inclusion) was embedded in the austenite phase with numerous other inclusions. However, experiments show that martensite variants tend to form large plates most of which have an invariant plane interface with the austenite and reach the grain boundary. Hence, to better simulate material behavior, in the revised model the micromechanical interaction energy is replaced by a small, constant term. The predictions by the new model for different uniaxial tension directions on a single CuAlNi crystal have excellent agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the counter-intuitive results for a polycrystal CuZnAl under triaxial loading are also well captured by the new model. As the revised model removes an iterative procedure for interaction energy, calculations are simplified, making the Multivariant model more suitable for larger scale computations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)795-810
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2002


  • Anisotropic material
  • Constitutive behavior
  • Invariant plane
  • Martensite/phase transformation
  • Micromechanics
  • Microstructure observation
  • Multi-axial loading simulation
  • Shape memory alloys
  • Tri-axial compression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering


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