A simplified nomogram to assess risk of bladder cancer in patients with a new diagnosis of microscopic hematuria

Richard S. Matulewicz*, Alfred Rademaker, Joshua J. Meeks

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: The vast majority of patients who undergo a diagnostic evaluation for microscopic hematuria (MH) do not have occult bladder cancer. Identifying patients with MH at high risk of harboring bladder cancer can allow for a risk adjusted approach to diagnostic interventions with the goal of safely reducing unnecessary evaluations. Methods: Patients with a new diagnosis of microhematuria during an 8.5 year period were retrospectively identified. All patients who had a complete MH evaluation were randomized to a training or a validation cohort. Logistic regression analysis was performed in the training cohort to identify factors related to a bladder cancer diagnosis and to develop our model. Receiver operating curves to identify bladder cancer were constructed for the training and validation cohort and tested for their ability to discriminate true cases. A nomogram to predict a bladder cancer diagnosis was created. Results: In 4,178 patients split into training and validation cohorts, those diagnosed with bladder cancer were shown to be older, have a greater degree of MH (more RBC/hpf), and were former or current smokers. A nomogram created using this model was able to predict risk of a bladder cancer diagnosis with good discrimination (areas under the curve 0.79, 95% CI 0.75–0.83). A cutoff of 0.01 probability demonstrated a sensitivity of 99.1% and a negative predictive value of 99.7%. Conclusion: A nomogram can accurately predict the risk of bladder cancer diagnosed during the evaluation of MH and can potentially be used avoid a significant number of work ups in those at the lowest risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)240-246
Number of pages7
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2020


  • Bladder cancer
  • Cystoscopy
  • Hematuria
  • Microhematuria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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