A simultaneous multichannel monophasic action potential electrode array for in vivo epicardial repolarization mapping

Alan V. Sahakian*, Ming Shing Lee Peterson, Sergio Shkurovich, Mark Hamer, Timothy Votapka, Tongyou Ji, Steven Swiryn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


While the recording of extracellular monophasic action potentials (MAPs) from single epicardial or endocardial sites has been performed for over a century, we are unaware of any previous successful attempt to record MAPs simultaneously from a large number of sites in vivo. We report here the design and validation of an array of MAP electrodes which records both depolarization and repolarization simultaneously at up to 16 epicardial sites in a square array on the heart in vivo. The array consists of 16 sintered Ag-AgCl electrodes mounted in a common housing with individual suspensions allowing each electrode to exert a controlled pressure on the epicardial surface. The electrodes are arranged in a square array, with each quadrant of four having an additional recessed sintered Ag-AgCl reference electrode at its center. A saline-soaked sponge establishes ionic contact between the reference electrodes and the tissue. The array was tested on six anesthetized open-chested pigs. Simultaneous diagnostic-quality MAP recordings were obtained from up to 13 out of 16 ventricular sites. Ventricular MAPs had amplitudes of 10-40 mV with uniform morphologies and stable baselines for up to 30 min. MAP duration at 90% repolarization was measured and shown to vary as expected with cycle length during sustained pacing. The relationship between MAP duration and effective refractory period was also confirmed. The ability of the array to detect local differences in repolarization was tested in two ways. Placement of the array straddling the atrioventricular (AV) junction yielded simultaneous atrial or ventricular recordings at corresponding sites during 1:1 and 2:1 AV conduction. Localized ischemia via constriction of a coronary artery branch resulted in shortening of the repolarization phase at the ischemic, but not the nonischemic, sites. In conclusion, these results indicate that the simultaneous multichannel MAP electrode array is a viable method for in vivo epicardial repolarization mapping. The array has the potential to be expanded to increase the number of sites and spatial resolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)345-352
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001


  • Cardiac mapping
  • Electrodes
  • Epicardium
  • Monophasic action potential
  • Refractory period
  • Repolarization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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