A single-item self-report medication adherence question predicts hospitalisation and death in patients with heart failure

Jia Rong Wu*, Darren A. Dewalt, David W. Baker, Dean Schillinger, Bernice Ruo, Kristen Bibbins-Domingo, Aurelia Macabasco-O'Connell, George M. Holmes, Kimberly A. Broucksou, Brian Erman, Victoria Hawk, Crystal W. Cene, Christine Delong Jones, Michael Pignone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aims and objectives: To determine whether a single-item self-report medication adherence question predicts hospitalisation and death in patients with heart failure. Background: Poor medication adherence is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Having a simple means of identifying suboptimal medication adherence could help identify at-risk patients for interventions. Design: We performed a prospective cohort study in 592 participants with heart failure within a four-site randomised trial. Methods: Self-report medication adherence was assessed at baseline using a single-item question: 'Over the past seven days, how many times did you miss a dose of any of your heart medication?' Participants who reported no missing doses were defined as fully adherent, and those missing more than one dose were considered less than fully adherent. The primary outcome was combined all-cause hospitalisation or death over one year and the secondary endpoint was heart failure hospitalisation. Outcomes were assessed with blinded chart reviews, and heart failure outcomes were determined by a blinded adjudication committee. We used negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between medication adherence and outcomes. Results: Fifty-two percent of participants were 52% male, mean age was 61 years, and 31% were of New York Heart Association class III/IV at enrolment; 72% of participants reported full adherence to their heart medicine at baseline. Participants with full medication adherence had a lower rate of all-cause hospitalisation and death (0·71 events/year) compared with those with any nonadherence (0·86 events/year): adjusted-for-site incidence rate ratio was 0·83, fully adjusted incidence rate ratio 0·68. Incidence rate ratios were similar for heart failure hospitalisations. Conclusion: A single medication adherence question at baseline predicts hospitalisation and death over one year in heart failure patients. Relevance to clinical practice: Medication adherence is associated with all-cause and heart failure-related hospitalisation and death in heart failure. It is important for clinicians to assess patients' medication adherence on a regular basis at their clinical follow-ups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2554-2564
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Nursing
Volume23
Issue number17-18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2014

Keywords

  • Heart failure
  • Medication adherence
  • Outcomes
  • Self-report

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)

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