A study of handwriting in written stories of normal and learning disabled children

Doris J Johnson*, Joanne F. Carlisle

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Written stories of normally achieving and learning disabled children in grades one through three were compared, using a Handwriting Evaluation Scale designed for this study. The subjects also were given tests for receptive language, figure copying and spelling. The Non-LD and LD groups differed on figure copying, spelling and written productivity, but not receptive language. The Non-LD grade level groups differed significantly on two components of the handwriting scale (Letter Size and Control), while the LD grade level groups differed on three components (Letter Formation, Alignment and Spacing, and Letter Size). The most pronounced differences between the LD and normally achieving children were on Formation and Size. A separate analysis of the third grade stories revealed that handwriting was less related to productivity than spelling and visual-motor skills. Nevertheless, the results indicated that many LD students have weak visual-spatial-motor skills. Implications for intervention are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-59
Number of pages15
JournalReading and Writing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996


  • Elementary years
  • Figure copying
  • Handwriting
  • Learning disabilities
  • Story writing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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