Background. The purpose of this statement is to update the recommendations by the American Heart Association (AHA) for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections and their management, which were last published in 2003. Methods and Results. The AHA commissioned this scientific statement to educate clinicians about CIED infections, provide explicit recommendations for the care of patients with suspected or established CIED infections and highlight areas of needed research. The recommendations in this statement reflect analyses of relevant literature, to include recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, microbiology, management and prevention of CIED infections. Conclusion. There are no scientific data to support the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis for dental or other invasive procedures. Clinical Implications. The concerns about life-threatening drug reactions, the development of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens, medicolegal issues and cost to the health care system are, thus, avoided. Key Words: American Heart Association scientific statements;Infection;Device; Cardiovascular implantable electronic device;Pacemaker;Defibrillator; Endocarditis;Bacteremia;Antibiotic prophylaxis.
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