A system for the implementation and kinesthetic display of virtual environments

Paul Millman, Michael Stanley, Paul Grafing, J. Edward Colgate

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A system for kinesthetic and visual display of virtual environments has been developed which includes a four degree-of-ffeedom, force-controlled manipulandum and a parallel processing architecture for performing realtime environment simulation, manipulandum control and graphics display. The system allows a user to interact with a virtual environment via a virtual hand tool. "Forces" at the handle of the virtual tool are experienced as real forces at the handle of the manipulandum The problem of modeling environments composed of rigid bodies with intermittent contact has been addressed. Dynamic equations for environment simulations are generated and solved in real time by an array of interconnected microprocessors. Additional microprocessors safeguard against dangerous motor accelerations and potentially damaging manipulator configurations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-56
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Mar 26 1993
EventTelemanipulator Technology 1992 - Boston, United States
Duration: Nov 16 1992 → …

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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