A wireless and battery-less implant for multimodal closed-loop neuromodulation in small animals

Wei Ouyang, Wei Lu, Yamin Zhang, Yiming Liu, Jong Uk Kim, Haixu Shen, Yunyun Wu, Haiwen Luan, Keith Kilner, Stephen P. Lee, Yinsheng Lu, Yiyuan Yang, Jin Wang, Yongjoon Yu, Amy J. Wegener, Justin A. Moreno, Zhaoqian Xie, Yixin Wu, Sang Min Won, Kyeongha KwonChangsheng Wu, Wubin Bai, Hexia Guo, Tzu li Liu, Hedan Bai, Giuditta Monti, Jason Zhu, Surabhi R. Madhvapathy, Jacob Trueb, Maria Stanslaski, Elizabeth M. Higbee-Dempsey, Iwona Stepien, Nayereh Ghoreishi-Haack, Chad R. Haney, Tae il Kim, Yonggang Huang, Roozbeh Ghaffari, Anthony R. Banks, Thomas C. Jhou*, Cameron H. Good*, John A. Rogers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Fully implantable wireless systems for the recording and modulation of neural circuits that do not require physical tethers or batteries allow for studies that demand the use of unconstrained and freely behaving animals in isolation or in social groups. Moreover, feedback-control algorithms that can be executed within such devices without the need for remote computing eliminate virtual tethers and any associated latencies. Here we report a wireless and battery-less technology of this type, implanted subdermally along the back of freely moving small animals, for the autonomous recording of electroencephalograms, electromyograms and body temperature, and for closed-loop neuromodulation via optogenetics and pharmacology. The device incorporates a system-on-a-chip with Bluetooth Low Energy for data transmission and a compressed deep-learning module for autonomous operation, that offers neurorecording capabilities matching those of gold-standard wired systems. We also show the use of the implant in studies of sleep–wake regulation and for the programmable closed-loop pharmacological suppression of epileptic seizures via feedback from electroencephalography. The technology can support a broader range of applications in neuroscience and in biomedical research with small animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1252-1269
Number of pages18
JournalNature Biomedical Engineering
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Computer Science Applications


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