Both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are implicated in cognition. We have previously suggested that stimulation of the muscarinic M1 receptor has a beneficial effect on cognition, based upon evidence that the muscarinic M1 receptor agonist of N-desmethylclozapine, the major metabolite of clozapine, may contribute to the ability of clozapine to improve some domains of cognition in schizophrenia. Present study examined the effectiveness of a new muscarinic M1 receptor agonist, 4-[3-(4-butylpiperidin-1-yl)-propyl]-7-fluoro-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-one (AC260584), to increase the release of acetylcholine and dopamine in the rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Using microdialysis in awake, freely moving rats, AC260584, 3 and 10, but not 1 mg/kg (s.c.), significantly increased dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, only the high dose of AC260584, 10 mg/kg (s.c.), significantly increased acetylcholine release in these regions. Moreover, the increases in acetylcholine release produced by AC260584, 10 mg/kg, were attenuated by the muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist telenzepine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) but not by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-[2-(4-2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635, 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). However, the increase in dopamine release produced by 10 mg/kg AC260584 was blocked by both telenzepine and WAY100635. In addition, pretreatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) potentiated AC260584 (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced acetylcholine and dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the muscarinic M1 receptor agonist property of AC260584 contributes to its enhancement of cortical acetylcholine and dopamine efflux. Therefore, AC260584, as well as other muscarinic M1 receptor agonists, may be a valuable target for the development of drugs which can improve the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and perhaps other neuropsychiatric disorders, as well.
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