BACKGROUND: The normal rate of subclinical vascular aging from adolescence to young adulthood has not been well-characterized. We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study among adolescents with normal-weight, obesity, and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus to examine trajectories of early vascular aging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adolescents (mean [SD] age 17.6 [3.5]; 35.3% male) had either normal weight (n=141), obesity (n=156), or type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=151) at baseline. Primary metrics used for early vascular aging included measures of vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness [cIMT]; common, internal, and bulb) and arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index). Longitudinal (5-year) outcomes were examined using generalized estimating equations ad-justing for baseline value, sex, race, and age. Compared with participants with normal weight, those with obesity had greater positive change in common cIMT (0.05 mm [0.03, 0.06]; P<0.001), bulb cIMT (0.02 mm [0.00, 0.05]; P=0.033), internal cIMT (0.03 mm [0.01, 0.05]; P<0.001), and pulse wave velocity carotid-femoral (0.38 m/sec [0.14, 0.61]; P=0.001), and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus had greater positive change in common cIMT (0.05 mm [0.04, 0.07]; P<0.001), bulb cIMT (0.06 mm [0.04, 0.09]; P<0.001), internal cIMT (0.04 mm [0.02, 0.07]; P<0.001), augmentation index (4.67% [2.20, 7.13]; P<0.001), and pulse wave velocity carotid-femoral (0.74 m/sec [0.46, 1.02]; P<0.001). Higher baseline systolic blood pressure was associated with greater positive change in common cIMT (0.007 mm [0.003, 0.011]; P<0.001), bulb cIMT (0.009 mm [0.002, 0.016]; P=0.01), internal cIMT (0.008 mm [0.003, 0.013]; P=0.001), and pulse wave velocity carotid-femoral (0.066 m/sec [0.002, 0.130]; P=0.042). CONCLUSIONS: These longitudinal data support the hypothesis that the presence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and elevated baseline systolic blood pressure in early life accelerates the progression of risk factors key in the development of early vascular aging.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine