Introduction: Hereditary amyloidodis is a rare disease process with a propensity to cause polyneuropathies, autonomic dysfunction, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. It is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner, with disease onset usually in the 20s-40s. The most common hereditary amyloidogenic protein, transthyretin, is synthesized in the liver and lies on Chromosome 18. Over 80 amyloidogenic transthyretin mutations have been described, the majority of which are neuropathic and hence the common name, Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy. Until 1990, the disease was intractable with a 5-15 year survival after diagnosis. The prognosis changed after the implementation of orthotropic liver transplantation as a treatment strategy which halts the synthesis of amyloidogenic transthyretin. This has now has been performed over 1300 times in 67 centers. Case presentation: We describe the case of a man of Irish ancestry with Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy and no clinical history of cardiac involvement. Shortly after orthotropic liver transplantation, he developed congestive heart failure. He was subsequently diagnosed with an accelerating post-transplant restrictive cardiomyopathy due to amyloid infiltration. Conclusion: A liver transplant induced cardiomyopathy in Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy can be observed in patients without any history of cardiac symptoms. All patients with Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy should be followed after transplantation to assess for a deterioration in cardiac function.
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