Women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)/premature ovarian failure exhibit hypergonadotropic hypogonadism due to follicle dysfunction and depletion before the age of 40 years. Because ovulation is extremely rare and thought to be unpredictable in women with POI and because no ovulation induction regimens have been shown to be efficacious, oocyte donation is the only evidence-based treatment for women with POI with desired fertility. Oocyte donation is, however, extremely limited in several countries including Japan. Here, we report four women with POI who achieved pregnancies resulting from timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination in combination with cyclic estrogen/progesterone therapy and close monitoring of follicle development. These four patients were diagnosed with POI at the mean age of 27.5 ± 8.5 (mean ± SD; range, 19-35), subjected to follicle monitoring at the mean age of 29.8 ± 5.7 (23-35), and conceived at the mean age of 34.5 ± 3.9 (29-38). The interval between the initiation of follicle monitoring and pregnancy was 4.8 ± 2.8 (2-8) years. In one of the patients, her most recent ovulation occurred after a three-year interval. All four patients had uncomplicated pregnancies with term deliveries. In the event that oocyte donation and adoption are not available and/or various treatments with intensive ovulation induction have been unsuccessful, close and continuous monitoring of follicle growth to identify very rare ovulatory events might be considered for patients with POI and desired fertility.
- Cyclic estrogen/progesterone therapy
- Follicle monitoring
- Premature ovarian failure
- Primary ovarian insufficiency
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism