ACR appropriateness criteria® on renal failure

Erick M. Remer*, Nicholas Papanicolaou, David D. Casalino, Jay T. Bishoff, M. Donald Blaufox, Courtney A. Coursey, Manjiri Dighe, Steven C. Eberhardt, Stanley Goldfarb, Howard J. Harvin, Marta E. Heilbrun, John R. Leyendecker, Paul Nikolaidis, Aytekin Oto, Glenn M. Preminger, Steven S. Raman, Sheila Sheth, Raghunandan Vikram, Robert M. Weinfeld

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Imaging plays a role in the management of patients with acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. However, clinical circumstances strongly impact the appropriateness of imaging use. In patients with newly detected renal dysfunction, ultrasonography can assess for reversible causes, assess renal size and echogenicity, and thus, establish the chronicity of disease. Urinary obstruction can be detected, but imaging is most useful in high-risk groups or in patients in whom there is a strong clinical suspicion for obstruction. Computed tomography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance arteriography, and percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy are valuable in other clinical situations. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1041-1048.e1
JournalAmerican journal of medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014


  • Acute kidney injury
  • Appropriateness criteria
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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