ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Staging of Renal Cell Carcinoma: 2022 Update

Expert Panel on Urological Imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Renal cell carcinoma is a complex group of highly heterogenous renal tumors demonstrating variable biological behavior. Pretreatment imaging of renal cell carcinoma involves accurate assessment of the primary tumor, presence of nodal, and distant metastases. CT and MRI are the key imaging modalities used in the staging of renal cell carcinoma. Important imaging features that impact treatment include tumor extension into renal sinus and perinephric fat, involvement of pelvicalyceal system, infiltration into adrenal gland, involvement of renal vein and inferior vena cava, as well as the presence of metastatic adenopathy and distant metastases. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision process support the systematic analysis of the medical literature from peer reviewed journals. Established methodology principles such as Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE are adapted to evaluate the evidence. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method User Manual provides the methodology to determine the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where peer reviewed literature is lacking or equivocal, experts may be the primary evidentiary source available to formulate a recommendation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S246-S264
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • AUC
  • Appropriate Use Criteria
  • Appropriateness Criteria
  • CT
  • MRI
  • Nephrectomy
  • Renal cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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