ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Evaluation of the Symptomatic Male Breast

Expert Panel on Breast Imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Although the majority of male breast problems are benign with gynecomastia as the most common etiology, men with breast symptoms and their referring providers are typically concerned about whether or not it is due to breast cancer. If the differentiation between benign disease and breast cancer cannot be made on the basis of clinical findings, or if the clinical presentation is suspicious, imaging is indicated. The panel recommends the following approach to breast imaging in symptomatic men. In men with clinical findings consistent with gynecomastia or pseudogynecomastia, no imaging is routinely recommended. If an indeterminate breast mass is identified, the initial recommended imaging study is ultrasound in men younger than age 25, and mammography or digital breast tomosynthesis in men age 25 and older. If physical examination is suspicious for a male breast cancer, mammography or digital breast tomosynthesis is recommended irrespective of patient age. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S313-S320
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018


  • AUC
  • Appropriate Use Criteria
  • Appropriateness Criteria
  • Digital breast tomosynthesis
  • Gynecomastia
  • Male breast cancer
  • Mammography
  • Pseudogynecomastia
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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