Several viral trans-activators and a tumor promoter were examined for the ability to activate human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) gene expression. A plasmid containing the HPV-18 noncoding region placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was cotransfected with different herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genes into several cell lines. Both HSV-1 TIF and ICP0 activated HPV-18 expression; however, activation by TIF was observed only in epithelial cells, while ICP0 stimulated expression in a wide variety of cells. The element activated by both TIF and ICP0 was mapped to a 229-base-pair fragment which also contains an HPV-18 epithelial cell-preferred enhancer. The inclusion of a papillomavirus E2 trans-activator with TIF and ICP0 further increased HPV-18 expression. In contrast, the HSV-1 ICP4 and ICP27 genes, as well as the human T-cell lympotropic virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat genes, were found to have no effect on HPV-18 expression. In transient assays, the addition of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) also activated HPV-18 expression. The region of HPV-18 activated by TPA was localized to a sequence which is homologous to other TPA-responsive elements.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science