Activation of the integrated stress response and metabolic dysfunction in a murine model of sleep apnea

Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanhong Qiao, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Ahamed A. Khalyfa, Mahzad Akbarpour, Brian Popko, David Gozal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Intermittent hypoxia (IH) induces activation of the integrated stress response (ISR), but its role in IH-induced visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) insulin resistance is unknown. CHOP is activated by chronic ISR, whereas GADD34 dephosphorylates the subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2a), leading to termination of the ISR. We hypothesized that CHOP/Gadd34 null mice would not manifest evidence of insulin resistance after IH exposures. Eightweek-old CHOP/GADD342/2 (double mutant [DM]) and wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly assigned to IH or room air (RA) exposures for 6 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed, and regulatoryTcells (Tregs) and macrophages invWAT were assessed. Phosphorylated eIF2a:total eIF2a, ATF4, XBP1 expression, and insulin-induced pAKT/AKT expression changes were examined in vWATs. Single GADD342/2 and PERK1/2 mice were also evaluated. Body weight and vWAT mass were reduced in DM and WT mice after IH. M1/M2 macrophages and inflammatory macrophages (Ly-6chigh) were significantly increased in WT vWAT but remained unchanged in DM mice. Tregs were significantly decreased in WT vWAT but not in DM mice. Systemic insulin and glucose tolerance tests revealed insulin resistance in IH-WT but not in IH-DM mice. Similarly, decreased pAKT/AKT responses to exogenous insulin emerged in IH-WT compared with RA-WT mice, whereas no significant differences emerged in IH-DM compared with DM-RA. Chronic ISR activation appears to contribute to the insulin resistance and vWAT inflammation that characteristically emerge after long-term IH exposures in a murine model of obstructive sleep apnea.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-486
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2017


  • Double-mutant GADD34/CHOP
  • Integrated stress response
  • Intermittent hypoxia
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • PERK

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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