Addiction Medicine

John E. Franklin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Diagnoses for substance dependence and abuse have been modified in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)1 published by the American Psychiatric Association. Substance dependence is defined as a maladaptive pattern of use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the following symptoms occurring at any time in the same 12-month period: (1) tolerance; (2) withdrawal; (3) substance taken for longer periods or in larger amounts than intended; (4) persistent or unsuccessful efforts to cut down on use; (5) a great deal of time spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance or recover from its effects; (6) important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of use; and/or (7) continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem likely to be caused or exacerbated by the substance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1656-1657
Number of pages2
JournalJAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Issue number21
StatePublished - Jun 7 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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