Addressing violence against teachers: A social-ecological analysis of teachers' perspectives

Susan D. McMahon*, Eric Peist, Jacqueline O. Davis, Elizabeth McConnell, Samantha Reaves, Linda A. Reddy, Eric M. Anderman, Dorothy L. Espelage

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Much research has been dedicated to supporting school communities in combating the problem of school violence. However, violence directed toward teachers is under-investigated, and knowledge of how to support teachers is limited. This qualitative study used conventional content analysis to assess teachers' recommendations for preventing and improving the response to teacher-directed violence. The sample included 245 prekindergarten through 12th grade teachers, all of whom experienced school violence and participated in a larger national survey study on violence against teachers. Using a social-ecological framework and conventional content analysis, teacher recommendations for addressing teacher victimization were identified and organized at the individual, school, community, and society levels. Themes around conflict resolution strategies; improving policies, resources, and relationships with administrators; increasing parental involvement; and changing culture and laws were highlighted. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1040-1056
Number of pages17
JournalPsychology in the Schools
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020


  • aggression toward teachers
  • qualitative study
  • social-ecological framework
  • teacher recommendations
  • teacher victimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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