Adenoviruses result in a wide array of clinical presentations, including primarily respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, or systemic infections. Although adenovirus causes mild disease limited to a single organ system in immunocompetent individuals, severe and life-threatening infections do rarely occur. Disseminated disease and severe localized disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality have been well described in the immunocompromised populations. Although asymptomatic viremia, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal infections are the most common disease in most transplant patients, renal transplant patients more commonly experience urinary tract infections, including hemorrhagic cystitis or nephritis. Diagnosis requires astute clinical awareness of the patient's clinical presentation that would be compatible with adenovirus combined with cultures, molecular testing, polymerase chain reaction, and tissue sampling. There is no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for adenovirus; however, several studies have evaluated therapeutic options including cidofovir, brincidofovir, and immunotherapy. This article will summarize our current understanding of adenovirus in the transplant population.
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