Previously we showed that the E1A binding proteins p300 and CBP negatively regulate c-Myc in quiescent cells and that binding of E1A to p300 results in the induction of c-Myc and thereby induction of S phase. We demonstrated that p300 and HDAC3 cooperate with the transcription factor YY1 at an upstream YY1 binding site and repress the Myc promoter. Here we show that the small E1A protein induces c-Myc by interfering with the protein-protein interaction between p300, YY1, and HDAC3. Wild-type E1A but not the E1A mutants that do not bind to p300 interfered in recruitment of YY1, p300, and HDAC3 to the YY1 binding site. As E1A started to accumulate after infection, it transiently associated with promoter-bound p300. Subsequently, YY1, p300, and HDAC3 began to dissociate from the promoter. Later in infection, E1A dissociated from the promoter as well as p300, YY1, and HDAC3. Removal of HDAC3 from the promoter correlated with increased acetylation of Myc chromatin and induction. In vivo E1A stably associated with p300 and dissociated YY1 and HDAC3 from the trimolecular complex. In vitro protein-protein interaction studies indicated that E1A initially binds to the p300-YY1-HDAC3 complex, briefly associates with it, and then dissociates the complex, recapitulating somewhat the in vivo situation. Thus, E1A binding to the C-terminal region of p300 disrupts the important corepressor function provided by p300 in repressing c-Myc. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which a viral oncoprotein activates c-Myc in quiescent cells and raise the possibility that the oncoproteins encoded by the small-DNA tumor viruses may use this mechanism to induce c-Myc, which may be critical for cell transformation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science