Administration of valproic acid in clinically approved dose improves neurologic recovery and decreases brain lesion size in swine subjected to hemorrhagic shock and traumatic brain injury

Glenn K. Wakam, Ben E. Biesterveld, Manjunath P. Pai, Michael T. Kemp, Rachel L. O'connell, Aaron M. Williams, Ashok Srinivasan, Kiril Chtraklin, Ali Z. Siddiqui, Umar F. Bhatti, Claire A. Vercruysse, Hasan B. Alam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhage remain the leading causes of death after trauma. We have previously shown that a dose of valproic acid (VPA) at (150 mg/kg) can decrease brain lesion size and hasten neurologic recovery. The current Food and Drug Administration-approved dose of VPA is 60 mg/kg. We evaluate neurologic outcomes and brain lesion size of a single dose of VPA at a level currently within Food and Drug Administration-approved dose in swine subjected to TBI and hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Swine (n = 5/group) were subjected to TBI and 40% blood volume hemorrhage. Animals remained in shock for 2 hours before randomization to normal saline (NS) resuscitation alone (control), NS-VPA 150 mg/kg (VPA 150), or NS-VPA 50 mg/kg (VPA 50). Neurologic severity scores (range, 0-32) were assessed daily for 14 days, and brain lesion size was measured via magnetic resonance imaging on postinjury day (PID) 3. Results: Shock severity and laboratory values were similar in all groups. Valproic acid-treated animals demonstrated significantly less neurologic impairment on PID 1 and returned to baseline faster (PID 1 mean neurologic severity score, control = 22 ± 3 vs. VPA 150 mg/kg = 8 ± 7 or VPA 50 mg/kg = 6 ± 6; p = 0.02 and 0.003). Valproic acid-treated animals had significantly smaller brain lesion sizes (mean volume in mm3, control = 1,268.0 ± 241.2 vs. VPA 150 mg/kg = 620.4 ± 328.0 or VPA 50 mg/kg = 438.6 ± 234.8; p = 0.007 and 0.001). Conclusion: In swine subjected to TBI and hemorrhagic shock, VPA treatment, in a dose that is approved for clinical use, decreases brain lesion size and reduces neurologic impairment compared with resuscitation alone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)346-352
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Volume90
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Neuroprotection
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Valproic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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