Adolescents’ Understanding of Opioid-Induced Euphoria Measures and Proposed Measurement Revisions

Jordon R. Manworren, John Hajduk, Janine N. Hill, Alice A. Raad, Renee C.B. Manworren*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Prescription opioid misuse is an unintended consequence of acute pain management. Opioid-induced euphoria (OIE) with first therapeutic opioid exposure may influence opioid misuse. OIE is not assessed in clinical care and self-report measures of OIE have not been validated in adolescents. We (1) determined adolescents’ ability to understand existing self-reported OIE measures, (2) revised measures for better understanding by this population, and (3) established initial content validity of revised measures with adolescents. Using runner’s euphoria to simulate OIE in Study 1, 29 adolescents’ (14 males) understanding of the Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ-5), the Addiction Resource Center Inventory Morphine Benzedrine Group scale (ARCI-MBG), and the ARCI Lysergic Acid Diethylamide scale (ARCI-LSD) were tested. In Study 2, 29 additional adolescents (9 males) participated in a modified Delphi study with focus groups to revise survey items to improve understanding by peers. In Study 1, runners understood <40% of ARCI-MBG and ARCI-LSD statements. In Study 2, all but 7 survey items were revised. Revised measures of OIE for adolescents may help define at-risk OIE phenotypes and validate risk assessments using survey methodology. Additional studies are needed to validate the revised OIE self-report measures with opioid-naive adolescents receiving opioids to treat acute pain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)258-268
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Psychoactive Drugs
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022


  • Adolescents
  • euphoria self-report
  • opioid
  • opioid-induced euphoria
  • runner’s euphoria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • General Psychology


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