Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now widely considered the third endogenous gasotransmitter and plays critical roles in cancer biological processes. In this study, we demonstrate that 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (ADT-OH), the most widely used moiety for synthesising slow-releasing H2S donors, induces melanoma cell death in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with previous reports, ADT-OH inhibited IκBɑ degradation, resulting in reduced NF-κB activation and subsequent downregulation of the NF-κB-targeted anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP and Bcl-2. More importantly, we found that ADT-OH suppressed the ubiquitin-induced degradation of FADD by downregulating the expression of MKRN1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of FADD. In addition, ADT-OH had no significant therapeutic effect on FADD-knockout B16F0 cells or FADD-knockdown A375 cells. Based on these findings, we evaluated the combined effects of ADT-OH treatment and FADD overexpression on melanoma cell death in vivo using a mouse xenograft model. As expected, tumour-specific delivery of FADD through a recombinant Salmonella strain, VNP-FADD, combined with low-dose ADT-OH treatment significantly inhibited tumour growth and induced cancer cell apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that ADT-OH is a promising cancer therapeutic drug that warrants further investigation into its potential clinical applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research