To examine age-related differences in the discovery of intralist relationships, young and elderly adults were were presented a free-recall list in either the conventional successive single-item format or in a wholelist display. A list that could be organized by associative or rhyming intralist relationships was used to test the levels-of-processing model of memory as an explanation of age differences in recall. Young adults recalled more base-words, associates, and rhymes than elderly subjects on immediate free and cued tests and on a uncued test one week later. Elderly subjects showed less utilization of both semantic and nonsemantic intralist relationships. Age did not interact with method of presentation. Recall and organization deficits occurred for elderly adults even though they were less anxious than young adults.
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