Adult hypertropia: A guide to diagnostic evaluation based on review of 300 patients

M. A. Tamhankar, J. H. Kim, G. S. Ying, N. J. Volpe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose To highlight the key clinical features of various aetiologies of adult hypertropia and to discuss the diagnostic approach towards evaluation of vertical double vision. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 300 consecutive patients with vertical diplopia were evaluated by a single neuro-ophthalmologist and strabismologist in a tertiary care setting from 2005-2008. The medical records of all patients with vertical diplopia coded with one of the following diagnoses; hypertropia, diplopia, thyroid eye disease, fourth nerve palsy, ocular myasthenia, congenital strabismus, and third nerve palsy were reviewed. The main outcome measures were determination of aetiologies of hypertropia. Results Fourth nerve palsy and thyroid eye disease were the most common causes of vertical diplopia in our series and comprised more than 50% of patients. The other causes of vertical diplopia were ocular surgery, orbital fracture, neurosurgery, childhood strabismus, skew deviation, third nerve palsy, myasthenia gravis, and decompensated hyperphorias. Ocular motility deficits were seen in 33% of the cohort of whom thyroid eye disease comprised the largest group. Orbital ultrasonography was sensitive in detecting thyroid orbitopathy. Conclusion In the majority of patients, the aetiologies of hypertropias can be ascertained by history and careful ophthalmic examination alone. Fourth nerve palsy and thyroid eye disease were the most common causes of vertical diplopia in this series. & 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-96
Number of pages6
JournalEye
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

Keywords

  • fourth nerve palsy
  • hypertropia
  • thyroid eye disease
  • vertical diplopia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Arts and Humanities(all)

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