Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are lower in prostate tumor tissue and inversely related to proportion of West African ancestry

Morgan L. Zenner, Yves B. Helou, Ryan J. Deaton, Maria Sverdlov, Heng Wang, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Virgilia Macias, Cindy Voisine, Marcus Murray, Sarki A. Abdulkadir, Adam B. Murphy, Larisa Nonn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: The metabolism of normal prostate relies on glycolysis, with prostate cancer having reduced glycolysis and increased aerobic metabolism. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in tissues as a result of age and glycolytic rate. Differential AGE levels were recently observed in prostate cancer tissues. Herein we sought to quantify AGEs in benign and cancer prostate tissue in a diverse cohort of patients. Methods: Levels of the AGE Nε-(carboxylethyl)lysine (CML) were quantified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a tissue microarray which consisted of 3 cores from tumor and 2 cores from benign areas from 118 patients (87 African American and 31 European American). Ancestry informative markers for African Ancestry were available for 79 patients. Epithelial and stromal areas were quantified separately using an E-cadherin mask. CML levels were compared with clinical grade group and ancestry by mixed linear effect models. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin A1C were included as covariates. Results: CML levels were lower in areas of the tumor, for both epithelium and surrounding stroma, compared with benign, but did not significantly change with tumor grade group. Age, PSA levels, BMI, and hemoglobin A1C did not associate with CML levels. CML levels were inversely associated with the percentage of African Ancestry in all tissues. Conclusions: The low CML levels in cancer may reflect the reduced glycolytic state of the tissue. The inverse relationship between African Ancestry and CML levels in both benign and cancer areas suggests a state of reduced glycolysis. It is yet to be determined whether altered glycolysis and CML levels are bystanders or drivers of carcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)306-313
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 15 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Oncology


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