Advancement of phonetics in the 21st century: Exemplar models of speech production

Matthew Goldrick*, Jennifer Cole

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the first decades of the 21st century, exemplar theory has fueled an explosion of theoretical and empirical work in speech production. We review the foundations for this framework in linguistics and cognitive science, and examine how recent empirical findings challenge core principles of exemplar theory. While theoretical advances in hybrid exemplar models address some of these issues, accounting for the emergence of structure, the incorporation of structure into exemplar updating, and the non-uniformity of phonetic variation and convergence (among other phenomena), remain major challenges for current models. We discuss future directions for developing exemplar theories as comprehensive accounts of speech production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101254
JournalJournal of Phonetics
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • Connectionism
  • Exemplar models
  • Hybrid models
  • Usage based models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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