Advances in Implantable Optogenetic Technology for Cardiovascular Research and Medicine

Micah K. Madrid, Jaclyn A. Brennan, Rose T. Yin, Helen S. Knight, Igor R. Efimov*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Optogenetic technology provides researchers with spatiotemporally precise tools for stimulation, sensing, and analysis of function in cells, tissues, and organs. These tools can offer low-energy and localized approaches due to the use of the transgenically expressed light gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). While the field began with many neurobiological accomplishments it has also evolved exceptionally well in animal cardiac research, both in vitro and in vivo. Implantable optical devices are being extensively developed to study particular electrophysiological phenomena with the precise control that optogenetics provides. In this review, we highlight recent advances in novel implantable optogenetic devices and their feasibility in cardiac research. Furthermore, we also emphasize the difficulties in translating this technology toward clinical applications and discuss potential solutions for successful clinical translation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number720190
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
StatePublished - Oct 5 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • arrhythmia
  • heart
  • implantable
  • optogenetic
  • wireless

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Advances in Implantable Optogenetic Technology for Cardiovascular Research and Medicine'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this