Advances in Rejection Management: Prevention and Treatment

Claire R. Harrington, Guang Yu Yang, Josh Levitsky*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Extended survival of liver transplant recipients has brought rejection management to the forefront of liver transplant research. This article discusses T-cell–mediated rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and chronic rejection. We focus on the prevention and then discuss treatment options. Future directions of rejection management include biomarkers of rejection, which may allow for monitoring of patients who are considered high risk for rejection and detection of rejection before there is any clinical evidence to improve graft and patient survival. With improved graft life and survival of liver transplant recipients, the new frontier of rejection management focuses on immunosuppression minimization, withdrawal, and personalization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-72
Number of pages20
JournalClinics in liver disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Antibody-mediated rejection
  • Biomarkers of rejection
  • Immunosuppression minimization
  • T-cell mediated rejection
  • Tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology


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