Advances in selective activation of muscles for non-invasive motor neuroprostheses

Aikaterini D. Koutsou*, Juan C. Moreno, Antonio J. Del Ama, Eduardo Rocon, Jose L Pons

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Non-invasive neuroprosthetic (NP) technologies for movement compensation and rehabilitation remain with challenges for their clinical application. Two of those major challenges are selective activation of muscles and fatigue management. This review discusses how electrode arrays improve the efficiency and selectivity of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transcutaneous electrodes. In this paper we review the principles and achievements during the last decade on techniques for artificial motor unit recruitment to improve the selective activation of muscles. We review the key factors affecting the outcome of muscle force production via multi-pad transcutaneous electrical stimulation and discuss how stimulation parameters can be set to optimize external activation of body segments. A detailed review of existing electrode array systems proposed by different research teams is also provided. Furthermore, a review of the targeted applications of existing electrode arrays for control of upper and lower limb NPs is provided. Eventually, last section demonstrates the potential of electrode arrays to overcome the major challenges of NPs for compensation and rehabilitation of patient-specific impairments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number165
JournalJournal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 13 2016


  • Multi-pad electrodes
  • Muscle fatigue
  • Muscle selectivity
  • Neuroprosthesis
  • sFES

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Advances in selective activation of muscles for non-invasive motor neuroprostheses'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this