Similarly to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), other interstitial lung diseases can develop progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PPF) characterized by declining lung function, a poor response to immunomodulatory therapies, and early mortality. The pathophysiology of disordered lung repair involves common downstream pathways that lead to pulmonary fibrosis in both IPF and PPF. The antifibrotic drugs, such as nintedanib, are indicated for the treatment of IPF and PPF, and new therapies are being evaluated in clinical trials. Clinical, radiographic, and molecular biomarkers are needed to identify patients with PPF and subgroups of patients likely to respond to specific therapies. This article reviews the evidence supporting the use of specific therapies in patients with IPF and PPF, discusses agents being considered in clinical trials, and considers potential biomarkers based on disease pathogenesis that might be used to provide a personalized approach to care.
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