Aerosol-Jet-Printed Graphene Immunosensor for Label-Free Cytokine Monitoring in Serum

Kshama Parate, Sonal V. Rangnekar, Dapeng Jing, Deyny L. Mendivelso-Perez, Shaowei Ding, Ethan B. Secor, Emily A. Smith, Jesse M. Hostetter, Mark C. Hersam*, Jonathan C. Claussen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Graphene-based inks are becoming increasingly attractive for printing low-cost and flexible electrical circuits due to their high electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and manufacturing scalability. Conventional graphene printing techniques, such as screen and inkjet printing, are limited by stringent ink viscosity requirements properties and large as-printed line width that impedes the performance of printed biosensors. Here, we report an aerosol-jet-printed (AJP) graphene-based immunosensor capable of monitoring two distinct cytokines: interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) with 40 μm finger widths were printed from graphene-nitrocellulose ink on a polyimide substrate. The IDEs were annealed in CO2 to introduce reactive oxygen species on the graphene surface that act as chemical handles to covalently link IFN-γand IL-10 antibodies to the graphene surfaces. The resultant AJP electrochemical immunosensors are capable of monitoring cytokines in serum with wide sensing range (IFN-γ: 0.1-5 ng/mL; IL-10: 0.1-2 ng/mL), low detection limit (IFN-γ: 25 pg/ml and IL-10: 46 pg/ml) and high selectivity (antibodies exhibited minimal cross-reactivity with each other and IL-6) without the need for sample prelabeling or preconcentration. Moreover, these biosensors are mechanically flexible with minimal change in signal output after 250 bending cycles over a high curvature (φ = 5 mm). Hence, this technology could be applied to numerous electrochemical applications that require low-cost electroactive circuits that are disposable and/or flexible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8592-8603
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number7
StatePublished - Feb 19 2020


  • aerosol jet printing
  • cytokines
  • electrochemical biosensor
  • graphene
  • interdigitated electrode
  • printed electronics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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