Published data suggest that ketorolac pharmacokinetics are different in children than in adults. We sought to better characterize ketorolac pharmacokinetics in children. Thirty-six children, aged 1-16 yr, were stratified into four age groups: 1-3 yr, 4-7 yr, 8-11 yr, and 12-16 yr. Each child received 0.5 mg/kg of ketorolac tromethamine IV after completion of elective surgery. A maximum of 16 venous blood samples (mean, 13 ± 2) were collected at predetermined times up to 10 h after drug administration. Plasma ketorolac concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after solid-phase extraction. Individual concentration-versus-time relationships were best fit to a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model by using SAAM II. Body weight-normalized pharmacokinetic variables did not differ among the age groups and were similar to those reported for adults, including a volume of distribution at steady state of 113 ± 33 mL/kg (mean ± SD) and an elimination clearance of 0.57 ± 0.17 mL · min-1 · kg-1. Our study demonstrates that a single dose of ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg) results in plasma concentrations in the adult therapeutic concentration range for 6 h in most children. Our data provide no evidence that children require either larger weightadjusted doses or shorter dosing intervals than adults to provide similar plasma drug concentrations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine