AI in human teams: effects on technology use, members’ interactions, and creative performance under time scarcity

Sonia Jawaid Shaikh*, Ignacio F. Cruz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Time and technology permeate the fabric of teamwork across a variety of settings to affect outcomes which have a wide range of consequences. However, there is a limited understanding about the interplay between these factors for teams, especially as applied to artificial intelligence (AI) technology. With the increasing integration of AI into human teams, we need to understand how environmental factors such as time scarcity interact with AI technology to affect team behaviors. To address this gap in the literature, we investigated the interaction between the availability of intelligent technology and time scarcity in teams. Drawing from the theoretical perspective of computers are social actors and extant research on the use of heuristics and human–AI interaction, this study uses behavioral data from 56 teams who participated in a between-subjects 2 (intelligent assistant available × control/no intelligent assistant) × 2 (time scarcity × control/no time scarcity) lab experiment. Results show that teams working under time scarcity used the intelligent assistant more often and underperformed on a creative task compared to teams without the temporal constraints. Further, teams who had an intelligent assistant available to them had fewer interactions between members compared to teams who did not have the technology. Implications for research and applications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1587-1600
Number of pages14
JournalAI and Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Interactions
  • Performance
  • Teams
  • Time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Philosophy
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Artificial Intelligence


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