All Roads Lead to TiO2: TiO2-Rich Surfaces of Barium and Strontium Titanate Prepared by Hydrothermal Synthesis

Lawrence A. Crosby, Bor Rong Chen, Robert M. Kennedy, Jianguo Wen, Kenneth R. Poeppelmeier, Michael J. Bedzyk, Laurence D. Marks*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Through high-resolution electron microscopy, the surface structure of barium titanate and strontium titanate nanoparticles are found to be terminated by a TiO2 double layer. These results confirm prior observations of TiO2-rich surface reconstructions on strontium titanate nanoparticles made hydrothermally at high pH and single crystals prepared with wet chemical etching. Of all the reconstructions observed on single crystals for these two materials, we report for first time the 13 × 13R33.7° structure on the {001} facets of hydrothermally prepared barium titanate and strontium titanate nanocrystals. The aqueous environment common to the two preparation methods preferentially leaves strontium and barium depleted from the A-sites near the surface and leads to TiO2-terminated surfaces for both materials. Analysis indicates that the observed structures are the thermodynamic lowest energy structures in aqueous conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)841-846
Number of pages6
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 13 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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