Aim: To test whether α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) is a sensitive and specific marker of prostate cancer. Methods and results: The expression levels of AMACR mRNA were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A total of 807 prostatic specimens were further examined by immunohistochemistry specific for AMACR. Quantitative immunostaining analyses were carried out by using the ChromaVision Automated Cellular Imaging System and the Ariol SL-50 Imaging System, respectively. AMACR mRNA levels measured in prostatic adenocarcinoma were 55 times higher than those in benign prostate tissue. Of 454 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma, 441 were positive for AMACR, while 254 of 277 cases of benign prostate were negative for AMACR. The sensitivity and specificity of AMACR immunodetection of prostatic adenocarcinomas were 97% and 92%, respectively. Both positive and negative predictive values were 95%. By automatic imaging analyses, the AMACR immunostaining intensity and percentage in prostatic adenocarcinomas were also significantly higher than those in benign prostatic tissue (105.9 versus 16.1 for intensity, 45.7% versus 0.02% and 35.03% versus 4.64% for percentage, respectively). Conclusions: We have demonstrated the promising features of AMACR as a biomarker for prostate cancer in this large series and the potential to develop automated quantitative diagnostic tests.
- Prostate cancer
- α-methylacyl-CoA racemase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine