Altered kallikrein 7 and 10 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia

Eleftherios P. Diamandis*, Andreas Scorilas, Tadaaki Kishi, Kaj Blennow, Liu Ying Luo, Antoninus Soosaipillai, Alfred W. Rademaker, Magnus Sjogren

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Background: The role of various proteases in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is well documented. Recently, many members of the human tissue kallikrein family, a group of 15 secreted serine proteases, were found to be highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Some of these enzymes can be measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by using ELISA-type methodologies. Methods: We quantified various kallikreins in CSF of 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 16 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and 15 controls. We then correlated the levels of various kallikreins with presence of AD or FTD. Among all kallikreins measured, detectable levels in CSF were identified for kallikreins hK6, hK7, and hK10. Other tested kallikreins (hK5, hK8, hK11, and hK13) were unmeasurable. The most notable differences between kallikrein levels in CSF and the three groups of subjects were seen between controls and FTD patients for hK6 (decrease in FTD; P = 0.017), controls and FTD patients for hK7 (decrease in FTD; P < 0.001), and controls and AD patients for hK7 (decrease in AD; P = 0.019). In addition, significant differences were seen between FTD patients or control subjects and patients with AD patients for hK10 (increase in AD; P < 0.02). Approximately half of the AD patients had CSF hK10 levels that were higher than all patients with FTD except one and all control subjects except two. Various kallikrein concentrations in CSF were correlated, the strongest correlation seen between hK6 and hK7 (rs = 0.58). We also observed a statistically significant association between decreasing hK7 concentration in CSF and possession of one or two ApoE4 alleles (P = 0.014). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time significant alterations of hK6, hK7, and hK10 concentration in CSF of patients with AD and FTD. Notably, all three kallikreins (hK6, hK7, and hK10) are decreased in CSF of FTD patients and hK10 is increased in CSF of AD patients, in comparison to control subjects. The possible connection between these enzymes and the pathogenesis and progression of AD and FTD needs to be further investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)230-237
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Biochemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2004


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Frontotemporal dementia
  • Human kallikreins
  • NC, normal controls
  • Serine proteases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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