Objectives During normal left ventricular (LV) filling, a vortex ring structure is formed distal to the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV). Vortex structures contribute to efficient flow organization. We aimed to investigate whether LAVV abnormality in patients with a corrected atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) has an impact on vortex ring formation. Methods Whole-heart 4D flow MRI was performed in 32 patients (age: 26 ± 12 years), and 30 healthy subjects (age: 25 ± 14 years). Vortex ring cores were detected at peak early (E-peak) and peak late filling (A-peak). When present, the 3-dimensional position and orientation of the vortex ring was defined, and the circularity index was calculated. Through-plane flow over the LAVV, and the vortex formation time (VFT), were quantified to analyze the relationship of vortex flow with the inflow jet. Results Absence of a vortex ring during E-peak (healthy subjects 0%, vs patients 19%; P =.015), and A-peak (healthy subjects 10% vs patients 44%; P =.008) was more frequent in patients. In 4 patients, this was accompanied by a high VFT (5.1-7.8 vs 2.4 ± 0.6 in healthy subjects), and in another 2 patients with abnormal valve anatomy. In patients compared with controls, the vortex cores had a more-anterior and apical position, closer to the ventricular wall, with a more-elliptical shape and oblique orientation. The shape of the vortex core closely resembled the valve shape, and its orientation was related to the LV inflow direction. Conclusions This study quantitatively shows the influence of abnormal LAVV and LV inflow on 3D vortex ring formation during LV inflow in patients with corrected AVSD, compared with healthy subjects.
- 4D flow MRI
- atrioventricular septal defect
- atrioventricular valves
- vortex flow
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine