Ambient-Stable Two-Dimensional CrI3via Organic-Inorganic Encapsulation

J. Tyler Gish, Dmitry Lebedev, Teodor K. Stanev, Shizhou Jiang, Leonidas Georgopoulos, Thomas W. Song, Gilhwan Lim, Ethan S. Garvey, Lukáš Valdman, Oluwaseyi Balogun, Zdeněk Sofer, Vinod K. Sangwan, Nathaniel P. Stern, Mark C. Hersam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional transitional metal halides have recently attracted significant attention due to their thickness-dependent and electrostatically tunable magnetic properties. However, this class of materials is highly reactive chemically, which leads to irreversible degradation and catastrophic dissolution within seconds in ambient conditions, severely limiting subsequent characterization, processing, and applications. Here, we impart long-term ambient stability to the prototypical transition metal halide CrI3 by assembling a noncovalent organic buffer layer, perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), which templates subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates the necessity of the noncovalent organic buffer layer since the CrI3 undergoes deleterious surface reactions with the ALD precursors in the absence of PTCDA. This organic-inorganic encapsulation scheme preserves the long-range magnetic ordering in CrI3 down to the monolayer limit as confirmed by magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. Furthermore, we demonstrate field-effect transistors, photodetectors, and optothermal measurements of CrI3 thermal conductivity in ambient conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10659-10667
Number of pages9
JournalACS nano
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 22 2021


  • 2D materials
  • atomic layer deposition
  • chromium triiodide
  • magneto-optical Kerr effect
  • transition metal halide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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