Objective: Factors such as size of hyphema, intraocular pressure, initial visual acuity, and use of steroids or antifibrinolytic drugs may be associated with the likelihood of rebleeding in traumatic hyphema. The association of the visual outcome with secondary hemorrhage has been questioned. Design: Randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Participants: Two hundred and thirty-eight patients who had hyphema develop after blunt trauma. Intervention: Eighty patients received oral tranexamic acid, 80 patients received placebo, and 78 patients received oral prednisolone. Main Outcome Measures: Secondary hemorrhage and vision at the time of discharge from the hospital were measured. Results: Rebleeding occurred in 43 (18%) of the patients and was prevented significantly by oral tranexamic acid compared with the placebo (odds ratios [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17, 0.89). Occurrence of secondary hemorrhage had weak associations with initial high intraocular pressure (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 0.99, 7.3) and initial visual acuity of 6/60 or less (OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 0.9, 3.7). Secondary hemorrhage had no statistical association with age, gender, oral prednisolone, size of hyphema, and retinal damage. Visual acuity of 6/60 or less at the time of discharge was significantly associated with rebleeding (OR = 10.5; 95% CI, 3.7, 29.2), initial visual acuity of 6/60 or less (OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.8, 38.0), retinal damage (OR = 14.6; 95% CI, 3.8, 55.8), and male gender (OR = 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4, 31.9). Final visual acuity had no significant statistical association with age, use of oral prednisolone or tranexamic acid, and size of hyphema. Conclusions: High intraocular pressure and low vision at the time of first examination may be associated with increased chance of rebleeding. Retinal damage, secondary hemorrhage, male gender, and initial poor vision are associated with a worse visual outcome in patients with traumatic hyphema.
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