An Approach to Confederate Training Within the Context of Simulation-Based Research

Mark D. Adler*, Frank L. Overly, Vinay M. Nadkarni, Jennifer Davidson, Ronald Gottesman, Ilana Bank, Kimberly Marohn, Stephanie Sudikoff, Vincent J. Grant, Adam Cheng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Statement Simulation-based education often relies on confederates, who provide information or perform clinical tasks during simulation scenarios, to play roles. Although there is experience with confederates in their more routine performance within educational programs, there is little literature on the training of confederates in the context of simulation-based research. The CPR CARES multicenter research study design included 2 confederate roles, in which confederates' behavior was tightly scripted to avoid confounding primary outcome measures. In this report, we describe our training process, our method of adherence assessment, and suggest next steps regarding confederate training scholarship.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)357-362
Number of pages6
JournalSimulation in Healthcare
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016


  • confederate
  • research design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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