An in situ field-ion microscope study of the recovery behavior of ion-irradiated tungsten and tungsten alloys

K. L. Wilson*, M. I. Baskes, D. N. Seidman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Five grades of tungsten specimens with different purity levels (resistivity ratios R of 5 × 104, 1.5 × 104, 50, 15 and 5) were irradiated in situ with 30 keV W+ ions to a dose of typically 5 × 1012 ion cm-2 at 18 K. Examination with a low-temperature field-ion microscope (FIM) showed the isochronal-annealing spectra of the specimens to result from a large self-interstitial atom (SIA) flux at ~ 38 K, followed by significant SIA flux from ~ 50 to 80 K and a small amount of additional recovery up to 120 K. The spectra for these five different R value specimens were essentially identical between 18 and 120 K. High-purity W specimens (R = 5 × 104) doped with 5 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-4 atom fraction carbon showed only a small reduction in the amount of recovery observed for the long-range migration peak at 38 K. The isochronal recovery spectra for WRe alloy specimens (5 × 10-3 and 3 × 10-2 atom fraction Re) were radically different from the isochronal recovery spectra of pure W specimens. For both alloys the recovery of the Stage I long-range migration peak at 38 K was strongly suppressed; for the 3 × 10-2 atom fraction alloy, all recovery from 18 to 120 K was virtually eliminated. This result indicated that during the long-range migration substage at 38 K tightly-bound, immobile SIA-Re complexes were formed that suppressed the SIA-SIA reaction. However, this effect was only observed at these high Re atom concentrations. The lack of any significant differences for the annealing spectra of the five purity-levels of undoped tungsten and the appearance of impurity effects only in the extremely concentrated W alloys (i.e. 5 × 10-3 to 3 × 10-2 atom fraction Re) indicated that the early Stage II recovery (45-120 K) observed in the FIM isochronal-annealing spectra of self-ion irradiated high-purity W was intrinsic in nature. Because of the highly inhomogeneous SIA distribution of the W+ ion damage, the SIA-SIA interaction during Stage I long-range migration at 38 K appeared to be the dominant trapping mechanism. The early Stage II SIA recovery was therefore attributed to the migration or dissolution of these SIA clusters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-102
Number of pages14
JournalActa Metallurgica
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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