An introduction to kernel and operator learning methods for homogenization by self-consistent clustering analysis

Owen Huang, Sourav Saha, Jiachen Guo, Wing Kam Liu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Recent advances in operator learning theory have improved our knowledge about learning maps between infinite dimensional spaces. However, for large-scale engineering problems such as concurrent multiscale simulation for mechanical properties, the training cost for current deep learning methods is high and unscalable. The article presents a thorough analysis on the mathematical underpinnings of the operator learning paradigm and proposes a kernel learning method that maps between Banach spaces of functions. We first provide a survey of modern kernel and operator learning theory, as well as discuss recent results and open problems. From there, the article presents an algorithm to show we can analytically approximate the piecewise constant functions on R for operator learning. This implies the potential feasibility of success of neural operators on clustered functions, at least on the real line. Finally, a k-means clustered domain on the basis of a mechanistic response is considered and the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for micro-mechanical homogenization is solved. The article briefly discusses the mathematics of previous kernel learning methods and some preliminary results with those methods. The proposed kernel operator learning method uses graph kernel networks to come up with a mechanistic reduced order method for multiscale homogenization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-219
Number of pages25
JournalComputational Mechanics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • Discrete calculus
  • Functional analysis
  • Kernel methods
  • Lippmann Schwinger equation
  • Operator learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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