Adverse blood pressure (BP. is a major independent risk factor for epidemic cardiovascular diseases affecting almost one-quarter of the adult population worldwide. Dietary intake is a major determinant in the development and progression of high BP. Lifestyle modifications, including recommended dietary guidelines, are advocated by the American Society of Hypertension, the International Society of Hypertension, the Japanese Society of Hypertension, and many other organisations for treating all hypertensive people, prior to initiating drug therapy and as an adjunct to medication in persons already on drug therapy. Lifestyle modification can also reduce high BP and prevent development of hypertension. This review synthesizes results from the International Study of Macro/ Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 4,680 men and women aged 40-59 years from Japan, the People’s Republic of China, the United Kingdom, and the United States, published over the past few years on cross cultural BP differences. INTERMAP has previously reported that intakes of vegetable protein, glutamic acid, total and insoluble fibre, total polyunsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid, total n-3 fatty acid and linolenic acid, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and non-heme iron were inversely related to BP. Direct associations of sugars (fructose, glucose, and sucrose. and sugar-sweetened beverages (especially combined with high sodium intake), cholesterol, glycine, alanine, and oleic acid from animal sources with BP were also reported by the INTERMAP Study.
- Blood pressure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Biochemistry, medical