Considerable evidence demonstrates that genetic factors are important in the development and aggressiveness of prostate cancer. To identify genetic variants that predispose to prostate cancer we tested candidate SNPs from genomic regions that show linkage to prostate cancer susceptibility and/or aggressiveness, as well as genes that show a significant difference in mRNA expression level between tumor and normal tissue. Cases had histologically verified prostate cancer. Controls were at least 65 years old, never registered a PSA above 2.5 ng/ml, always had digital rectal examinations that were not suspicious for cancer, and have no known family history of prostate cancer. Thirty-nine coding SNPs and nine noncoding SNPs were tested in up to 590 cases and 556 controls resulting in over 40,000 SNP genotypes. Significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls were observed for ID3 (inhibitor of DNA binding), p = 0.05, HPN (hepsin), p = 0.009, BCAS1 (breast carcinoma amplified sequence 1), p = 0.007, CAV2 (caveolin 2), p = 0.007, EMP3 (epithelial membrane protein 3), p < 0.0001, and MLH1 (mutL homolog 1), p < 0.0001. SNPs in three of these genes (BCAS1, EMP3 and MLH1) remained significant in an age-matched subsample.
- Familial disease
- Prostate cancer
- Single nucleotide polymorphism
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