Analysis of Cardiovascular Complications During Delivery Admissions Among Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, 2004-2019

Salman Zahid, Mohamed S. Mohamed, Heba Wassif, Noreen T. Nazir, Sadiya S. Khan, Erin D. Michos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Importance: Individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications. However, data on acute cardiovascular complications during delivery admissions remain limited. Objective: To investigate whether SLE is associated with an increased risk of acute peripartum cardiovascular complications during delivery hospitalization among individuals giving birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the National Inpatient Sample (2004-2019) by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes to identify delivery hospitalizations among birthing individuals with a diagnosis of SLE. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to report an adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the association between SLE and acute peripartum cardiovascular complications. Data were analyzed from May 1 through September 1, 2022. Exposure: Diagnosed SLE. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary study end points were preeclampsia, peripartum cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Secondary end points included ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmias, acute kidney injury (AKI), venous thromboembolism (VTE), length of stay, and cost of hospitalization. Results: A total of 63 115 002 weighted delivery hospitalizations (median [IQR] age, 28 [24-32] years; all were female patients) were identified, of which 77 560 hospitalizations (0.1%) were among individuals with SLE and 63 037 442 hospitalizations (99.9%) were among those without SLE. After adjustment for age, race and ethnicity, comorbidities, insurance, and income level, SLE remained an independent risk factor associated with peripartum cardiovascular complications, including preeclampsia (adjusted OR [aOR], 2.12; 95% CI, 2.07-2.17), peripartum cardiomyopathy (aOR, 4.42; 95% CI, 3.79-5.13), heart failure (aOR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.61-4.57), cardiac arrhythmias (aOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.94-2.21), AKI (aOR, 7.66; 95% CI, 7.06-8.32), stroke (aOR, 4.83; 95% CI, 4.18-5.57), and VTE (aOR, 6.90; 95% CI, 6.11-7.80). For resource use, median (IQR) length of stay (3 [2-4] days vs 2 [2-3] days; P < .001) and cost of hospitalization ($4953 [$3305-$7517] vs $3722 [$2606-$5400]; P < .001) were higher for deliveries among individuals with SLE. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that SLE was associated with increased risk of complications, including preeclampsia, peripartum cardiomyopathy, heart failure, arrhythmias, AKI, stroke, and VTE during delivery hospitalization and an increased length and cost of hospitalization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e2243388
JournalJAMA network open
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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